Covid 19 penetrates the human body, mainly through the nasal mucosa, prompting scientists to intensify their efforts to achieve a given vaccine through the nose.
A recent study, published by medRxiv.org, found promising positive results in this regard, through the use of immunoglobulin derived from chicken eggs as a nasal vaccine.
During the study, according to the Russian agency RIA Novosti, the researchers used a cheap method to generate large amounts of antibodies used in fast-acting nasal vaccines, and they injected the RBD (RBD) protein receptor for chickens.
2 or 3 weeks after this vaccination, sufficient levels of IgY antibodies against COVID-19 were recorded in chicken eggs. Phase I clinical studies have shown that these antibodies are safe and well tolerated in healthy people when given nasal drops.
Antibodies were also administered to healthy participants increased in a 14-day incremental dose, and all participants showed a safe and acceptable tolerance. The scientists noted that the nasal vaccine based on chicken egg immunoglobulin is effective against all types of Corona virus.
One of the advantages of chicken IgY antibodies is that they reduce the risk of severe immune reactions, and none of the participants recorded an increase in the level of IgY antibodies in the blood serum, which indicates that the antibodies function well at the level of the nasal mucosa. and are not absorbed into the blood.
Absorption of antibodies into the blood is very important, as it excludes an inflammatory immune response. This nasal vaccine can also be used for a wide range of people, including people with weakened immune systems, the elderly, people with rheumatoid arthritis, and children. The only exceptions are people who are allergic to egg yolk.
The secret of chicken eggs
Chicken eggs are already known to be used to make some types of flu vaccine, through common and low-cost techniques that do not require complex logistical equipment, as is the case with many current Corona vaccines, and the use of the nasal vaccine. . is more effective in dealing with Covid 19.
And last April, the American newspaper, The New York Times, reported that there were experiments to produce an anti-Coronavirus vaccine using chicken eggs, called (NDV-HXP-S), and billions of doses could be produced each year worldwide the world. at a much lower cost than licensed vaccines.Currently.
Jason McClellan, associate professor at the University of Texas at Austin, worked with two University of Texas biologists, Elijah Finkelstein and Jennifer Maynard, to develop 100 modified spike proteins. With funding from the Gates Foundation, they tested all of these proteins, examined the results, and eventually created a single protein that met the requirements for developing a more effective vaccine. And the composition that the scientists achieved is called “Spike Hexapro”.
lower or cheaper price
McClellan expressed his hope that Hexapro-based vaccines will reach more countries in the world, especially low-income countries that have so far received only a small portion of total licensed vaccine deliveries.
The corona virus enters the human body, as a rule, through the nasal mucosa, which contains a high level of ACE2 receptors. The virus backbone binds to this receptor and uses it to enter cells, so antibodies swallowed by the nose can play an important role in preventing infection and transmitting it.
Advantages of nasal vaccines
Nasal vaccines are not new, as they are already used effectively to prevent many respiratory diseases in humans and animals. Scientists are also conducting several studies to find a nasal vaccine that fights flu strains.
And last August, scientists developed a new nasal spray vaccine that they say can protect against all types of flu virus, and can also be modified to fight other pathogens, such as the developing coronavirus. according to the American “Study Finds”. Web page.
The site said that this nasal spray offers extensive protection to its recipients, which constitutes a new line of protection against deadly forms of influenza virus. The team of researchers from Georgia State University, United States, says frequent seasonal epidemics and potential outbreaks are among the most serious threats to public health.
The website showed that the new vaccine contains a protein called recombinant hemagglutinin, which lives on the surface of influenza viruses and is essential for the virus’s ability to cause infection.
The website quoted the old author of the study, Dr. Baozong Wang, to say that “although it is difficult to fight the flu viruses because they can evolve and learn to protect themselves quickly from drugs, the new vaccine can solve this problem.”
He continued: “The available vaccines do not currently work against the incompatible strains of influenza, and therefore there was an urgent need for more effective alternatives and in this regard nasal sprays look particularly promising, as they introduce nanoparticles into the human body through nasal. to strengthen the systemic “immunity” device.
Given that the respiratory tract is the gateway for the virus to enter the body, the researchers say that nasal spray prevents infection at the main point of its occurrence and can also stimulate immune responses throughout the body.
In tests on mice and laboratory-grown human cells, the vaccine produced antibodies and provided protection against various types of the virus, and the nanoparticles significantly boosted the immune responses in the mucosa and throughout the rodent body.
In the study published in the Journal of the National Academy of Sciences, the researchers said that nanoparticles have unusual properties that enable them to deliver the active substance to the vaccine in the body, and are particles that can be easily modified to make vaccines. received through the airways of various other respiratory pathogens.
Nasal sprays also have superior logistical advantages over injections, including ease of use with higher acceptance rates and their role in avoiding hazardous biological waste.