Cancer is an abnormal growth of cells (usually arising from a single, abnormal cell). Losing normal control mechanisms, cells multiply continuously, invade nearby tissues and travel to distant parts of the body, stimulating the growth of new blood vessels from which cancer cells draw nutrients. Malignant cancer cells can develop from any tissue in the body.
When cancer cells grow and multiply, they form a mass of cancerous tissue (tumor) that engulfs and destroys nearby normal tissue. The term tumor refers to an abnormal growth or mass. Tumors can be cancerous or non-cancerous. Cancer cells can spread from their initial sites to other parts of the body
Some complications of cancer
Many cancers are painless at first, although pain may be an early symptom of some cancers, such as brain tumors that cause headaches and cancers of the head, neck, and esophagus, which cause pain when swallowing. As cancers grow, they are often the first symptoms. Mild, then steadily worsening until severe pain as the cancer enlarges. Pain may result from pressure from the cancer, or wear and tear on nerves or other anatomical structures. However, not all types of cancer may cause severe pain. Similarly, no The presence of pain does not mean that the cancer is not growing or spreading.
At first, cancer may bleed lightly because its blood vessels are fragile. Later, as the cancer enlarges and invades surrounding tissues, cancer cells may grow into a nearby blood vessel and cause bleeding. The bleeding may be slight and undetectable, or it can only be detected with a test. It often occurs in an early stage of colon cancer. Bleeding can be more severe and life-threatening in advanced stages of colon cancer.
The location of the cancer determines the site of the bleeding. Blood may appear in the stool as a result of any cancer along the alimentary tract. Likewise, blood may appear in the urine, as a result of any cancer along the urinary tract. Other types of cancer may cause bleeding in the internal parts of the body Bleeding inside the lung can cause coughing up blood.
Certain cancers produce substances that cause excessive clot formation, especially in the veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis). Sometimes blood clots break off from the leg veins and travel to the lung (pulmonary embolism), where they can lead to death. Excessive clotting is common in people with pancreatic cancer. lung cancer, or other solid tumors, and patients with brain tumors.
Weight loss and fatigue
People with cancer usually experience weight loss and fatigue, which may get worse as the cancer progresses. Some patients notice weight loss despite having a good appetite. Other patients may lose their appetite and may feel nauseous with food or have difficulty swallowing. The patient becomes very thin. People with advanced cancer often suffer from severe fatigue. If anemia occurs, the patient may feel tired and short of breath when doing any activity, even if it is light.
swollen lymph nodes
When cancer begins to spread throughout the body, it may first spread to nearby lymph nodes, which become swollen. Swollen lymph nodes are usually painless, and may be firm or rubbery. The nodes may move freely, and if the cancer is in an advanced stage, they may stick to tissues surrounding, or to each other.
Cancer can grow or press on nerves or the spinal cord, causing many neuromuscular symptoms, including pain, weakness, or a change in sensation (such as tingling). When cancer grows in the brain, symptoms can be difficult to pinpoint, but they can These include confusion, dizziness, headache, nausea, vision changes, and seizures.